Do You Really Know Cluster of Differentiation?

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Cluster of differentiation (also known as differentiation group or simply Cluster of differentiation, CD) refers to the cell surface molecules used to identify those used for immune antigen recognition.

There are many uses of CD molecules, not only participating in the recognition of antigens, capturing antigens, promoting the interaction between immune cells and antigens or immune molecules, but also mediating the adhesion between immune cells, immune cells and matrix, in the immune response. And play an important role in both activation and effector phases.

 

What is cluster of differentiation (CD)?

Cluster of differentiation (also known as differentiation group or simply Cluster of differentiation, CD) refers to the cell surface molecules used to identify those used for immune antigen recognition. Physiologically, CD molecules are usually used as important receptors or ligands of cells; in addition, some CDs can be used in the signaling cascade of cells (cascade reaction), thereby changing the behavior of cells; some CD proteins are not related to cell communication, but has other functions, such as cell adhesion.

 

More than 400 molecules have been characterized and given official names as a result of the information produced by the 10 Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens Workshops over the past 30 years. Leukocyte populations, subsets, and differentiation stages can all be identified and isolated using CD molecules, which are frequently used as cell markers. mAbs directed against these molecules have proven to be crucial in biotechnology, biomedical research, and diagnosis. They have recently been acknowledged as crucial tools for the treatment of a number of cancers and autoimmune disorders.

 

What is clusters of differentiation nomenclature?

In the first International Workshop and Conference on Human Leukocyte Differentiation Antigens, the CD nomenclature was suggested and established. (HLDA). This system was created to classify the various monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) produced by various laboratories around the world against epitopes on the surface molecules of leukocytes. (white blood cells). After two distinct monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been shown to bind to the proposed surface molecule, the molecule is given a CD number. If the molecule has only one mAb or hasn't been thoroughly characterized, it will typically have a lowercase "w" before the number designation, which stands for "workshop." (as in "CDw186").

 

Multiple molecules that share a common chain are denoted by a lowercase letter (e.g., CD1a, CD1b, CD1c, CD1d, or CD1e) after the CD number. Other instances include the integrin chains CD11a, CD11b, and CD11c, which all combine with CD18 to form various dimers. Other times, as with CD66, different members of the same gene family have had their names written in lowercase. (CD66a, CD66b, CD66c, CD66d, CD66e, and CD66f). A lowercase suffix in relation to carbohydrate CD structures denotes a modification of the same carbohydrate sequence (for instance, CD15s = sialylated CD15, Lewisx Ag; CD60b = 9-O-acetylated ganglioside GD3).

 

CD markers for immunophenotyping

Analyzing diverse cell populations for the purpose of determining the presence and relative abundance of different populations of interest is known as immunophenotyping. By recognizing particular antigens that these cells express, or markers, antibodies are used to distinguish between different types of cells. These markers are typically membrane proteins that function in cell adhesion, communication, or metabolism.

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